Stoic q&a: Is virtue a subjective concept?

[image: virtuous knives? Gerlach kitchen knives, Wikimedia; this is essay #305 in the “Philosophy as a Way of Life” series]

J. writes: I have seen Stoic virtue (arete) defined in a number of different ways: Human excellence, following Nature, living rationally, acting for the benefit of all mankind, acting with wisdom, justice, courage, moderation, etc.. In “Build Your Resilience” Donald Robertson even defines it as “acting in accord with our true personal values,” bringing Stoicism in line with modern ACT.